Sarcopenia en pacientes con y sin insuficiencia renal crónica: diagnóstico, evaluación y tratamiento


Se define sarcopenia como la pérdida de masa y función musculares, no sólo por disminución del tamaño sino también del número de fibras musculares. Altamente prevalente en el adulto mayor, aparece también en pacientes con enfermedades crónicas. En la insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) contribuyen a su aparición la enfermedad crónica per se, la edad avanzada, el sedentarismo habitual, sumado a múltiples factores que deterioran el estado nutricional, tales como reducción de la ingesta asociada o no a drogas anorexígenas, inflamación crónica, déficit de hormonas anabólicas, bajos niveles de vitamina D, resistencia insulínica y disminución de gelsolina (proteína clave en el ensamblaje y desensamblaje de filamentos de actina). La presencia de sarcopenia correlaciona con mayor mortalidad, discapacidad y aumento del riesgo de caídas. El diagnóstico se basa en medir la fuerza muscular y el rendimiento físico; para lo primero se utiliza el dinamómetro, y para lo segundo la medida de la velocidad de la marcha (registra el tiempo necesario para caminar una distancia determinada) y el test “Time Up and Go” (evalúa el tiempo para levantarse, recorrer 3 metros y volver a sentarse). En pacientes con IRC, una adecuada ingesta proteica, sumado a actividad física (particularmente ejercicios de resistencia) mejoran el rendimiento físico, la aptitud respiratoria y la sobrevida en general, y reducen la mortalidad cardiovascular. Asimismo, el ejercicio aumenta elcontenido muscular de IGF-1, y del ARNm para factor de crecimiento tipo insulina II, la capacidad oxidativa muscular y el número de células satélites necesarias para regenerar las fibras musculares.
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